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 Textile & Fabrics 

A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. [1] Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together.

Terminology :
The words fabric and cloth are commonly used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, crocheting, or pressing. Cloth refers to a finished piece of fabric that can be used for a purpose such as covering a bed or table.

History :
The production of textiles is an ancient craft, whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, there is little difference between ancient and modern plain weave, twill or satin.

Many textiles have been in use for millennia, while others are recent inventions. The range of materials has increased in the last century with the introduction of artificial fibers in the 1920s and 1930s.

Uses :
Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and containers such as bags and baskets. In the household, it is used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, towels, covering for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace, it is used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, nets, cleaning devices, and transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes.

Textiles used for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles.

Sources and types :
Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four main sources: animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.

Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The relative thickness of fibres in cloth is measured in deniers. Microfiber refers to fibers made of strands thinner than one denier.

Production methods :
Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of vertical threads (called the warp) with a set of horizontal threads (called the weft). This is done on a machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.

Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle.

Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame.

Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.

Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.

Treatments :
Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every color. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (plaid), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dye, or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric.

Textiles are also sometimes bleached. In this process, the original colour of the textile is removed by chemicals or exposure to sunlight, turning the textile pale or white.

Textiles are sometimes finished by starching, which makes the fabric stiff and less prone to wrinkles, or by waterproofing, which makes the fabric slick and impervious to water or other liquids. Since the 1990s, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free.



Sources : Internet Search Engines Result

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